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We are already accustomed to the fact that each person has a surname that distinguishes him from the rest, shows his belonging to a certain family and is inherited. The official assignment of a surname to each person took place less than a century ago, which is a very small period of time within the framework of history.
The history of each individual surname is unique in its own way. Today we will talk about such rare family names.
There are a lot of rare surnames that really grab the ear. It's just that there are relatively few carriers of such surnames. It is impossible to cover them all in the article, but we will try to at least classify them, divide them into groups.
1. One-letter surnames: despite the simplicity of their composition, they are quite rare and unusual for the ear. There are people registered in Moscow with the names O, Yu and E.
2. Surnames consisting of one syllable: they are also not common. Only a few families with the surnames An, En, To and Do live in Russia.
3. Surnames-place names: these are surnames that are consonant with the names of cities or rivers. For example, not many people have such surnames as: Moscow; America; Astrakhan; Kamchatka and others.
4. Legendary surnames: these are the names of literary and historical heroes, whose carriers are also very few. These include surnames such as: Crusoe; Grozny; Pozharsky; Chatsky; Karenin and others.
5. Double-rooted surnames: this includes surnames that have been obtained by splicing two words at once. Some naming conventions sound quite euphonious and are quite common, but you rarely see such names as: Good afternoon; Aybogin; Back street; I will scratch; Nepejvoda; Cool powder; Hvataymukha; Shchiborsch; Ubeykon and others.
6. Surnames consonant with ordinary words: these are words that did not receive a normal suffixation with the help of the suffixes -ov and -in typical for surnames:
- consonant with nouns: Water; Stove; Frost; Pan; Chizh; Magpie and many others;
- consonant with verbs: Touch; Razdobudko; Bite; Peck; Negrei and others;
- consonant with adverbs: Sideways; Sometimes; Generously; Nothing; Nekhai and others.
The list is endless. We do not set ourselves the task of covering the entire volume of rare Russian surnames: we have outlined only the main trends in their existence. And after all, each of the surnames has its own unique, unique story that can tell about the life of our distant ancestors.
Where could such rare and unusual surnames, unfamiliar to our hearing, come from? Initially, a person was given a nickname that distinguished him from the rest of the people. If a nickname stuck with a person, it gradually became a name that was assigned to a certain genus, family, even if unofficially. So the nickname turned into a surname.
Nicknames are most often rude or mocking in nature, and most of the modern rare, unusual surnames originated from them. Their origins can be very different, but people who are engaged in anthroponymics (the history of surnames, names, patronymics and nicknames of a person) identify several main trends in the origin of such names.
1. Surnames were given according to the person's appearance: Bryla (that was the name of people with plump, drooping lips); Lobar (a man of large build); Pimple (the so-called pimply person); Uraz (crippled person); Kharya (an ugly person); Makura (blind person); Fursik (a person of small stature).
2. The surname could reflect the person's occupation, his profession: Obabok (as our ancestors called people who hunted mushrooms); Vozovik (a person selling goods from a cart); Lazebnik (barber); Argun (Vladimir carpenter); Collar (the one who deals with horses).
3. Character traits were also often displayed precisely in unusual surnames: Obukh (as in some areas a stupid and stubborn person was called); Ogibenya (a nickname for a flattering and deceitful person); Kichiga (an empty person); Buzun (fighter); Palga (nickname for a clumsy person).
4. Surnames could be given at the place of residence: Zaporozhets; Moskvich; Volyn; Uralets and others.
5. Since for many centuries Russian culture has been formed under the influence of Orthodoxy, many rare surnames are of church origin: Prayer; Clerk; Bell; Singing; Bogodukh and others.
Thus, each surname has its own little story. How nice it would be if every person with a unique surname revealed its secret and preserved its history for their descendants. However, in the history of all rare surnames, common points can be distinguished.
At this time, people in the villages began to be distinguished not only by name, but also by surname. Noble boyars received dashing and sonorous surnames, but the peasantry did not know how to speak beautifully, therefore their surnames were the most dissonant. Some of them did not receive the suffix design afterwards and retained their initial form: Fritters; Fool; Dubodel; Bogomaz; Tit; Stub and others.
70s of the XIX century.
In 1874, Alexander II carried out a military reform, according to which universal conscription was introduced, which entailed the legal registration of the names of all males. There were frequent cases when a recruit found it difficult to answer the question of his last name. In this case, the surname was given immediately, most often in appearance. Since there was no time to fantasize, the names were often funny and even rude. Some of them have come down to us: Toothless; One-handed; Deaf; Crooked; Redhead; Lob and other surnames.
90s of the XIX century.
In 1897, the first all-Russian population census was held, which legally assigned surnames not only to men, but also to women and children. The surname has finally become officially assigned to a certain family. Somewhere scribes gave names to the desired form using typical suffixes, and somewhere they left them in the form of nicknames that have become a rarity today: Censer; Turnip; Breeze; Milk; Extreme and others.
30s of the XX century.
In the 30s of the XX century, an important era occurred in the general history of surnames. In Russia, everyone was invited to change their dissonant surnames. Lines of people with the most extraordinary surnames were drawn to the registration departments.
The Izvestia newspaper managed to record this historical moment: thanks to it, we have a list of those names that disappeared forever in the 30s of the last century: Poltorabatko; Near-Kulak; Balda; Poodle; Doggie; Corn; Barefoot; Whiny; Amanita; Ponytail and many, many others.
This is such a difficult path that many rare surnames have passed. Some of them managed to survive, others are irrevocably a thing of the past and exist for us only on paper. Rare names are not always funny and ridiculous. Among them there are many euphonic and beautiful ones - those that their carriers are rightly proud of.