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University (from German Universität, which, in turn, comes from Latin universitas - aggregate, community) is a higher educational institution where specialists in fundamental and many applied sciences are trained. As a rule, he also carries out scientific research work. Many modern universities operate as educational, scientific and practical complexes. Universities unite in their composition several faculties, which represent a set of various disciplines that constitute the basis of scientific knowledge.
The foundation for future human well-being is laid in youth. Today it is quite clear that a person who has not received a full-fledged education or who has not completed his studies at all will not be able to become a minister, president, or a major businessman.
In the world there is the Academic Rating of World Universities (ARWU), which determines the prestige of education in a particular institution, which is undoubtedly taken into account by applicants when choosing their university. This list also includes Russian universities, only they occupy low-honored places at the end of the first hundred, for example, Moscow State University is only in 70th place. Let's talk about the most prestigious universities in the world.
The first place belongs to Harvard University, located in Massachusetts, USA. This university was founded in 1636 and is the oldest educational institution of this level in America. He received his name in honor of the missionary John Harvard. The university includes 12 colleges and faculties, the most prestigious of which are the departments of medicine, economics and law. The university has several of its own museums, for example, museums of geology, zoology, and archeology. It is here that the largest scientific library in the world is collected, which contains a large number of the rarest manuscripts and books. It is noteworthy that among the Nobel laureates there are more than 30 graduates of Harvard. Every year about 18,000 students from all over the United States, as well as from 100 countries of the world, study at this university. The number of teachers is over 2300. The number of people wishing to go to Harvard is always large, despite the rather expensive level of tuition fees - a year of a student's stay at the university costs 42,000 dollars. Unsurprisingly, the university has a target capital of nearly $ 35 billion. Harvard is run by a President, of whom there have been 28 people in history.
The second place in the honorary list is occupied by Stanford University, located in California, USA. This educational institution was founded in 1891 by the Governor of California and also a major railway entrepreneur Leland Stanford. The university is named after the politician's son, Leland Stanford Jr., who died as a teenager. Almost 15 thousand students and applicants from all over the world study at Stanford. The university is known primarily for its high level of business education, MBA. Part of Stanford's land is on long-term lease from high-tech companies, this structure has received the famous name - "Silicon Valley". Alumni of the university founded such well-known companies as Hewlett-Packard, Electronic Arts, Nvidia, Yahoo, Google, Sun Microsystems, Cisco Systems and others.
In third place is the University of California, Berkeley, also located in California. It is the oldest of the ten universities in the state's education system. Numerous ratings suggest that this is the best public university in the United States. Founded in 1868, the university now occupies an area of about 5 thousand km2. The training of specialists in the field of physics, economics, and computer technology has brought the university worldwide fame. It was here in 2007 that it was announced that video recordings of lectures and events that took place at different times within the walls of the educational institution were posted on the free Internet resource YouTube. It was Berkeley who first decided to take such a step, which corresponds to the ideology of the university as a public institution. Physicists of this particular university played a huge role in the development of the atomic and hydrogen bombs. Here the cyclotron was invented, the antiproton was studied, the laser was developed, photosynthesis was investigated. Berkeley became the site of the discovery of new chemical elements - plutonium, seborgium, californium and others. The BSD operating system was born here, which laid the foundation for a whole ideology.
The fourth place belongs to Cambridge, located in the UK. It is the second oldest university in Europe after Oxford, founded in 1209. According to legend, several pundits left Oxford due to disagreements with local residents, it was they who founded a new training center. The history of the confrontation between Oxford and Cambridge is so deep and interesting, they occupy such an important place in the history of English society that they are even united into one and called Oxbridge. Now there are 31 colleges of various directions in Cambridge (with 3 of them accepting only women) and more than 100 departments. Humanities are especially popular with students. There are even theological colleges at the university. Annually, the walls of Cambridge receive about 17 thousand students, while about 17% of them are foreigners. The high level of education at the university is confirmed by the fact that 87 Nobel Prizes have been received by its graduates since 1904, according to this indicator, few can compare with the university. The president of Cambridge is a person of royal blood - Philip, Prince of Edinburgh.
Fifth place is given to the famous Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT). This university was founded in 1861, and today there is also a research center. The very birth of the university served as a response to the growth of science and technology in the 19th century, since traditional education could no longer adequately correspond to new trends. MIT today is a real mecca in the field of computer technology, robotics, artificial intelligence, and other fields of technology and science. At the university, engineering and scientific training is initially focused more on the acquisition of practical skills than theoretical subjects. During World War II, MIT's prestige rose markedly as Massachusetts students and staff actively participated in military research programs. The most famous institutions of the university are the Informatics and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the School of Management, and the Lincoln Laboratory. Massachusetts is rightfully considered one of the most prestigious technical universities; it is no coincidence that 72 of the Nobel laureates are local graduates. They also study economics and management, philosophy, linguistics and political science. Tuition fees at this prestigious institution start at $ 30,000 per year.
The next line of the ranking belongs to the California Institute of Technology, USA. This private university was founded in 1891 by the politician and businessman Amos Trup, as a result of several renaming the current name was received in 1920. The main specialization of this famous university is engineering and exact sciences. It is here that the jet propulsion laboratory is located, which is actively used by NASA. Although all universities honor their traditions, it is here that they are especially developed. So, on every Halloween, students drop a pumpkin from the high building of the library. The fruit is frozen with liquid nitrogen and decorated with light bulbs. For freshmen, a "truancy day" is held, during which freshmen must certainly get into the university building, which is hindered by ingenious traps created by their older comrades. It is believed that studying here is more difficult than anywhere else. After all, students are invited to assimilate a huge amount of information in a short time. The university is even credited with the aphorism: "Study, sleep, social life: choose two out of three." The university has adopted its own Code of Honor, according to which students are given unimaginable freedom in other places, for example, they are allowed to perform exam tasks at home.
Columbia University, located in New York, USA, is rightfully ranked seventh. The university was founded quite a long time ago, back in 1754, thanks to the permission of King George II of England. However, already in 1787, the university became private. Quite early this institution became known for the fact that it trains the political elite. It was this university that many US ministers and presidents, including Barack Obama, graduated from, and 54 graduates later received the Nobel Prize. Columbia University is one of the most popular for foreign students, about 20 thousand people study here, with more than a third of them come from abroad, representing 150 countries of the world. This institution houses the Bakhmetyevsky Archive, which is one of the most significant repositories of materials from the Russian emigration. The lion is the symbol of the university. The university is famous for its school of journalism, opened back in 1912. Any political events resonate within the walls of the institution, for example, during the Vietnam War in 1968, 5 educational buildings were captured by students, the conflict was resolved only with the help of the police.
The eighth line of the ranking is given to Princeton University, USA. This is one of the most famous and prestigious American universities, it was founded back in 1746. The first lesson took place in the house of the priest Jonathan Dickinson, who is the founder of the university. In Princeton, New Jersey, the institution did not move immediately, only in 1756. The institution received the status of a university in 1896. Now about 4.5 thousand people study in it, while all training is based strictly on individual plans, it is also closely related to research work. Of the 400 professors teaching here, seven are Nobel laureates. The total number of teachers is over 1,100. What made Princeton so important was the fact that it is one of the few universities to join Google's book digitization program. The university library itself boasts 6 million prints, 5 million manuscripts and 2 million other printed materials. It also has its own code of honor, according to which students undertake not only not to deceive themselves, but also to report all cases of violation of order. Examinations at the university are held without the presence of teachers or assistants. Violations of the same code can lead to expulsion from the educational institution. Princeton is renowned for its sports traditions, with 38 sports teams. The tiger is the symbol of Princeton.
Private University of Chicago, founded by the legendary John Rockefeller in 1890, is ranked ninth. Other sources mention the date of foundation in 1857, but it was the financial assistance of the magnate at the end of the century that allowed the institution to start working in full. The local library was founded in 1892; today it houses more than 3.5 million copies of books, including rare manuscripts. 79 people, one way or another connected with the University of Chicago, are Nobel laureates. In training, the strongest areas associated with physics, economics, sociology and jurisprudence. The university accepts about 14,000 students within its walls, about 2,000 teachers teach there, and the symbol of the university is the phoenix.
The legendary University of Oxford, located in the UK, follows the list. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe, no wonder its fame, because it is believed to have been founded in 1117. The university consists of 39 independent colleges and 7 educational institutions that belong to religious communities and do not have such a status. Today, about 18.5 thousand students study in Oxford, and a quarter of them are foreigners. The university employs 3,700 teachers, with 100 of them being members of the British Academy of Sciences. Only in the 20s of the last century women began to be admitted to Oxford, and separate education was abolished half a century later. The main areas of student training are the humanities, mathematics, physical and social sciences, as well as medicine. Oxford is not only a university, but also a research center located on its territory. This university houses the largest educational library in the country; in general, there are about a hundred libraries here. For the organization of students' leisure, about 300 circles are offered, in addition, much attention is paid to sports. Kings Edward VII and Edward VIII graduated from Oxford, 25 English prime ministers studied here, and among the teachers it is enough to recall only the names of John Tolkien and Lews Carroll.