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Height - 31-32 cm, weight - 800 g.
This week, the formation of the neuronal system and the cerebral cortex is finally completed. The bark consists of gray matter (which is really gray in color, which is why it is named so) and, despite its dull color, provides all the higher nervous activity of the body.
The bark is responsible for the perception and mental properties of a person, controls and regulates the forms of his behavior, allows him to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
The presence or lack of oxygen in the body of the child and the mother has a decisive influence on the activity of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, prolonged oxygen starvation (chronic hypoxia) is unacceptable. Hypoxia is now quite common (10.5% of cases).
If the baby does not receive enough oxygen and other substances it needs, this can lead to perinatal diseases and developmental defects. In the late stages of pregnancy, due to oxygen starvation, the child is stunted, his nervous system is affected, which means that other functions of his body are developing incorrectly.
Why does hypoxia occur? First of all, it can arise due to diseases of the mother associated with the cardiovascular system (for example, anemia, heart defects, etc.), lungs (mother does not receive enough oxygen herself), severe poisoning that disrupts oxygen metabolism.
The second reason is the abnormal development of placental blood circulation due to gestosis, the threat of termination or, on the contrary, prolongation of pregnancy, pathology of the development of the placenta and the umbilical cord, through which blood flow is carried out.
What signs should make an expectant mother worry? Firstly, if, over a series of tests, her hemoglobin in the blood drops, weakness, dizziness and fainting often rolls over, there is an excessive desire to eat meat with blood or liver. These are all signs of anemia. All measures should be taken to increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood, consultation with a doctor is required!
Secondly, you need to monitor the baby's movements. Of course, mom is happy to feel how her child is actively kicking. But in fact, the excessive activity of the fetus is one of the signs of possible hypoxia - with his active movements, the child accumulates oxygen.
If, after an extremely active period, there is a lull and only very weak movements are felt (up to three times within an hour), you should immediately consult a doctor, conduct an examination: a study of amniotic fluid, CTG, Doppler.
For those mothers who have hypoxia, the main thing is rest and bed rest. Then doctors begin to treat the disease that caused the hypoxia (for example, anemia in the mother). Actions are taken to improve the supply of oxygen to the baby and facilitate blood circulation.
If suddenly all the efforts of the doctors do not show an improvement in the situation, then they, together with the expectant mother, decide on an early birth through a cesarean section (for a period of more than 28 weeks).
At 25 weeks, the baby's genitals are already finally formed, the boy's testicles descend into the scrotum (however, they will finally descend after childbirth), and the girls have a vagina.
The baby's heartbeat is audible even if you just put your ear to the mother's tummy. The future dad can enjoy this sound, as well as the thrusts of the legs and arms of his heir (heiress).
It is believed that girls' hearts beat faster than boys, but there is no scientific evidence on this. The norm for this period is 120-160 beats per minute (in adults, 60-80 beats per minute).
The baby's bones continue to grow and strengthen. Now he can already clench his fingers at will, grabs his own leg and plays with it, while giving preference to the right or left hand, has his own unique fingerprints.
The average weight gain this week is about 7.5 kg. The uterus has reached the size of a soccer ball and its bottom is located in the middle between the sternum and the navel. The height of the fundus of the uterus is 25 cm. As it grows, the uterus presses on the diaphragm and hypochondrium, as well as the stomach. You may have severe heartburn again.
The belly can enlarge in different ways. For some, it protrudes strongly forward, for others, on the contrary, the sides are widened. Therefore, some of the pregnant women monumental protrudes with their belly forward, someone seems to be a round bun.
In addition, the breasts are growing more and more. It is not uncommon for it to grow 3-4 sizes. Hence the nicknames that pregnant women jokingly call themselves: mammoth, baby elephant, matryoshka, belly, Kenga's mother, etc.
Remember, between 20 and 30 weeks, you should see your doctor at least once every two weeks.
You can already start looking for a dowry for the baby. Although there is a sign that you do not need to buy anything before the baby is born, it is worth using the remaining time to familiarize yourself in detail with the offers on the market. After giving birth, there is simply no time or energy left for it. And it is very important to buy a stroller, crib, baby accessories of high quality so that they serve for a long time.
In addition to the dowry, it is time to gradually select a maternity hospital for yourself. Start collecting information to determine by 36 weeks when you need to register with the hospital of your choice. Now let's talk about a specific type of childbirth in modern society - home.
That is, when a woman gives birth at home, not because of an accident and not because of a sudden birth or the inability to get to the hospital, but makes a fundamental choice not to go there at all.
Let's try to weigh the pros and cons of home birth.
PROS: No one has proven that home birth is more dangerous than childbirth in the hospital.
Cons: There are no statistics on this issue in Russia. In principle, any childbirth is not dangerous if it proceeds normally, regardless of where exactly it took place. There is only one problem: neither you, nor the midwife, nor even the super-qualified doctor, never 100% know exactly how the birth will go. Never! Keep this in mind.
As soon as an unplanned complication occurs, being away from medical care can lead to irreversible consequences, up to the death of the child or mother. There is reason to believe that the high-profile trial of the Kolybelka center refutes the thesis about the safety of home births, as they are understood in Russia.
PROS: All over the world, women have long given birth at home.
Cons: The cost of hospitalization in foreign countries is several times higher than the cost of midwife services, so mothers with modest means often use home births out of a desire to save money.
Only in the EU is home birth approved. A special system of interaction between the mother, midwife, the nearest maternity center with qualified surgeons and emergency resuscitation care has been created there. Childbirth is illegal without the presence of a doctor. In case of the slightest complication, the midwife transports the woman in labor to the hospital.
In the USA, as noted by such well-known researchers as William and Maria Sears, the system of effective birth insurance has not been fully developed, in many areas it is absent in principle. Both in the US and in Europe, the midwife is licensed, armed with all the necessary medical instruments, including even an ultrasound scanner, and does not come empty-handed.
In Russia, the overwhelming majority of "spiritual midwives" do not have any medical education, and no one cares about safety net and this must be taken into account. We all know about the problems with calling an ambulance even in Moscow. Think about what you can count on if the count goes to seconds? And who will be next to you - a woman with an incomprehensible education or a qualified team of doctors?
Pros: You can always have time to start at home, and then quickly come to the hospital.
Cons: Time in this case goes by minutes, sometimes seconds (as in the case of the mother's bleeding). Are you sure you can make it in time? And if you have time, the child will not remain disabled?
PROS: Next to me at home will be my family, in a friendly mood, I will be next to the child from the first minutes of his life. In general, at home it is better than in a hospital, which is more like a prison: that is not allowed, this is not.
Cons: The maternity hospital is not at all a barracks, as it is sometimes presented. If a hospital (maternity hospital) seems to you a prison, then you suffer from a psychological phobia - the syndrome of separation from home. The term is used in relation to children who were given little attention by adults at 1 year of age.
And now your worries about being in the hospital, separation from loved ones and everyday inconveniences of the clinic are more reminiscent of the fears and phobias of a child. This has nothing to do with the real state of affairs, but only indicates the problems of your psyche.
In a modern maternity hospital, a woman in labor can invite her husband or other relative, and even, for God's sake, your "spiritual midwife" to give birth. In all maternity hospitals, the mother can stay with the newborn, visits from relatives after childbirth are allowed.
Household inconveniences are also gradually reduced to a minimum. The modern generation is already suffering because of double wards, while our grandmothers quietly gave birth in 12-bed rooms. More and more maternity hospitals are equipping wards with in-room amenities. A woman in labor is allowed to bring her own linen, any cosmetic and hygiene products with her.
Pros: At home, a woman can take any position that is convenient for her during contractions, be in the bathroom or shower.
Cons: In the hospital, no one will forbid you to move as you like. In many maternity hospitals, delivery blocks are equipped with at least a shower.
Pros: Reduced the risk of infection with pathogenic flora, such as Staphylococcus aureus.
Cons: Indeed, there were cases of infections in the 90s. But it is worth noting that all the same, maternity hospitals try to keep themselves clean, twice a year they are closed for preventive maintenance and cleaning. Many infections that appear in newborns are transmitted to them from the mother (65% of women have infections in the genital tract).
Pros: Medicines, anesthesia, episiotomy, forceps are not used.
Cons: You can opt out of any medical intervention as long as it is not life-threatening. But not all non-interference is beneficial. There are a number of indications when medical assistance is vital for mother and child. These are bleeding in the mother, rapid labor, acute asphyxia of the fetus (lack of oxygen, in other words, suffocation), placental abruption, prolapse of the umbilical cord, etc.
Pros: In Russia, home birth is not prohibited.
Cons: In Russia, home birth has no legal basis. "Spiritual midwives" and doctors without medical education are not responsible for anything. Be prepared for the fact that in the event of your child's death, you will be answered with the words of one supporter of home birth: "It was your decision, and you must share with the midwife all the full moral responsibility."
PROS: In the maternity hospital, doctors are rude and rude, and at home the midwife will look after me like a mother.
Cons: Do not generalize, the expression "all doctors are rude and rude" from the category "all women are fools." Think what is more important: the risk of losing a child or the possible (only possible!) Rudeness of doctors. There is no guarantee that the behavior of a "spiritual midwife" will suit you 100%. There are often cases when obstetricians are in no hurry to come (especially at night) and give birth over the phone! It is good if such childbirth ends well.
Very often the following thesis is heard: a woman must decide for herself where to give birth. This is absolutely not true. The woman decides not for herself and not for herself, but for the child and for the child. In addition, there is a whole list of contraindications for home birth:
- heart problems in the mother or baby,
- kidney problems (protein in the urine, swelling),
- history of cesarean section, scars on the uterus, fibroids, etc. diseases,
- premature birth,
- multiple pregnancy,
- incorrect presentation of the fetus,
- placental insufficiency,
- lack of water and polyhydramnios.
When giving birth at home, remember that you should immediately go to the nearest maternity hospital if you have:
- bleeding has opened,
- the water with an admixture of meconium moved away,
- labor takes too long without visible progress (more than 10 hours),
- rapid childbirth is underway,
- you feel that something is wrong, but you cannot explain what,
- if the "spiritual midwife" has not arrived, and there is no doctor near you.
In any case, a decision on home birth should be made only after a full medical examination and serious consultation with a qualified specialist from an official medical institution (LCD or maternity hospital).
24 weeks - 25 weeks - 26 weeks