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The earth is the home of humanity. It would seem that we should know everything about the surroundings of the Earth.
In fact, for decades, humanity has been trying to unravel such close and such mysterious phenomena. Below are the ten main mysteries of the solar system.
Oort cloud. The main question about this object is, does it exist at all? This is perhaps the main mystery of our solar system. Scientists have suggested the existence of the cloud only hypothetically, but no one has yet seen this part of the universe. According to theories, comets with a long orbital period are formed here. Scientists can only assume that the Oort cloud is located at a distance of 50-100 thousand AU. from the sun. The boundaries of this object lie on the very outskirts of the solar system. In this case, billions of bodies from the cloud are tied by gravity to the Sun.
Abnormal behavior of the Pioneer probes. People cannot explain the behavior of spacecraft, which suddenly begin to deviate from the course. In 1972 and 1973, the probes Pioneer-10 and Pioneer-11 were launched. The purpose of their flight was to study the outer boundaries of our solar system. However, over time, experts from NASA noticed that the vehicles markedly changed their original course. Perhaps this was the effect of the sun's gravity? But a more detailed study of the speeds of the probes revealed that some unknown weak force acted on them. Several theories have been built around this phenomenon. One of them explained this behavior of the devices by infrared radiation around their bodies. This could lead to the release of photons from one side of the object. Such a flow could be a small push towards the Sun. Other theories are even more fantastic. So this mystery still remains unclear.
Kuiper Belt. This astronomical object has been studied for a long time. Only now scientists are haunted, why does it end so suddenly? The Kuiper Belt is a large cluster of asteroids located in the solar system beyond Neptune. They form a kind of ring around our star. The belt includes millions of stone and metal asteroids. The average ones are 200 times larger than those objects that fly in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It was in the Kuiper belt that the dwarf planet Pluto was found at one time. This area of space has hardly been studied by humans. Only in 2015 will NASA's New Horizons probe arrive here to explore Pluto. Therefore, it remains unclear why the number of objects in the belt at a distance of 50 AU remains unclear. decreases unexpectedly. This is rather strange, because according to all signs, the number of objects should only increase with distance from the Sun. Among the theories, there is a rather curious one, according to which such behavior explains the existence of some unknown large planet. It is she who attracts objects to herself. The planet was even named Nibiru or Planet X.
Cosmic dust in comets. It is a mystery how cosmic dust, which is born at high temperatures, suddenly falls into the ice of comets. These cosmic bodies are composed of frozen liquid and solid particles. In the system, they appear from the hypothetical Oort cloud or from the Kuiper belt. At one time, NASA was able to take samples of matter from Comet Wild-2 with the help of the "Stardust-2004" apparatus. It turned out that the frozen body of the comet contains particles that were formed at very high temperatures. However, where did they come from, because their formation requires a temperature of over 1000 Kelvin? After all, this cannot be in the Kuiper belt! Our solar system emerged from a nebula about 4.6 billion years ago. During cooling, a disk of enormous size was formed. The samples found in comets could have formed in central regions, near the nascent Sun. But how did they end up in the very margins of the system? This mechanism remains a mystery to scientists.
Temperature of the Sun's corona. It is known that the temperature near the Sun is higher than on its surface. Scientists have been unable to explain this mystery for decades. The first studies with a spectroscope showed that the temperature in the solar atmosphere reaches a million kelvin. But the photosphere is much colder, there are "only" 6 thousand Kelvin. This does not fit well with the laws of physics. For example, the air around the spiral of a burning light bulb cannot be hotter than it itself. Scientists only speculate that the sun's corona may be heating up due to the action of magnetic forces in the star's atmosphere. This mechanism can be generated either by incandescence waves, or microflashes, or by these two factors simultaneously.
The atmosphere of Titan. Of all Saturn's moons, Titan stands out clearly. After all, this is the only satellite planet in the solar system with an atmosphere. Titan is 1.8 times larger than the Moon, and of all the satellites in the system, it is second only to Ganymede, orbiting Jupiter. The basis of Titan's atmosphere is nitrogen. She herself is one and a half times denser than the earth. There is nitrogen in our atmosphere, in about the same proportions - 78% versus 95%. However, it is unclear where the nitrogen came from on Titan to create the atmosphere.
Uranus tilt. Uranus is a rather strange planet. After all, almost all the planets in our system rotate around their axis in a relatively vertical position. But Uranus rotates lying on its side. Its axis is tilted 98 degrees. This situation leads to the fact that for a long period (about 42 years) the poles of Uranus take turns looking at our star. Such an unusual phenomenon may be associated with the collision of this planet with a large space object, which swept the axis. Another version says that this is the result of the interaction of the gravitational forces of Saturn and Jupiter.
Tunguska meteorite. There are many mysterious bodies in the solar system. One of them collided with our planet in 1908. We didn't know anything about the nature of the “guest”. However, this meteorite caused a tremendous explosion in the taiga, near the Tunguska River. Eyewitnesses of those events spoke of a bright glow, it was observed in different parts of the world. 80 million trees on an area of 2000 km² were knocked down in the blink of an eye by a monstrous force. A huge area burned out. But the most interesting thing is that the crater from the impact of the body was found. Scientists are at a loss as to what it could be. Was it a comet, an asteroid, or was there an accident of a spaceship of another civilization?
Mysteries of Mars. Scientists have found that the hemispheres of Mars are quite different from each other. The northern half is flat, but the southern part is almost entirely composed of mountain ranges and craters. At the Kaltech Institute, studies were carried out, according to them, this could be the result of contact with a huge cosmic body, with a diameter of 1600 to 2700 kilometers. It could and could have caused the lowlands in the northern hemisphere by erasing mountains. Another mystery of Mars is the mysterious disappearance of the research vehicles sent there. According to statistics, two out of three expeditions to this planet crash. Robots, probes and other equipment disappear on Mars.
Temperature difference at the poles of the Sun. The fact that the temperature of the Sun is not uniform is already known. However, it turned out that the star also has unequal poles. So, the north pole of the sun is much hotter than the south. This information was obtained thanks to the Ulysses solar probe. He sent us data on the Sun for 17 years. This expedition showed that the North Pole is 80 thousand Kelvin hotter than the South. To measure the temperature of the star "Ulysses" took samples of oxygen ions from the solar wind at a distance of 300 million kilometers from the star. The experiments were carried out in turn over each pole of the Sun. Scientists suggest that this can be explained by the different structure of the star's poles, which is the reason for the temperature discrepancy.