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You can become famous not only through politics or show business. Physical violence could scare your political opponents or the common population.
Terrorism has many forms - collective and individual, religious, nationalist, state and international. The first terrorists operated in Judea in the 1st century. Then the members of the sect of the Sicarii killed those noble Jews who stood up for peace with the Romans. This was seen as a betrayal of national interests.
In the Middle Ages, the Assassins became famous, who operated in the territory of present-day Iran. These faceless killers killed sinners at the behest of their leader. Today terrorists are no longer faceless, they do not hide, exposing their dark deeds on display. The most famous such criminals will be discussed below.
Herostratus. This is the first person who managed to go down in history not with his creative or political abilities, but with destructive activities. A Greek from Ephesus in 356 BC in his hometown he burned the temple of Artemis, which was considered one of the wonders of the world. During the torture, Herostratus admitted that he did it on purpose in order to perpetuate his name. After the execution, an order was issued to completely forget the name of Herostratus. For this, even the inhabitants of Ephesus hired special heralds who traveled around the country and announced that the name of the ambitious must be forgotten. However, this crime was set out in the writings of the ancient Greek historian Theopomp. From there, information about Herostratus migrated to the works of later scientists. The story of the burning of the famous temple was invariably accompanied by the name of the criminal. So Herostratus achieved his goal. Legends say that on the night when the temple of Artemis was burning, Alexander the Great was born. A terrorist Herostratus can hardly be considered, but he showed how you can achieve fame in a criminal way. The phrase "Herostratus' glory" or "the laurels of Herostratus" appeared, which means fame, tantamount to shame.
Boris Savinkov. In the second half of the 19th century, terrorist methods became very popular in Russia - attempts were made on the life of high-ranking officials and even the tsar. The revolutionary Boris Savinkova supported such methods of fighting the regime. He himself was born into a family of nobles, but all his closest relatives opposed the authorities in one way or another. For example, the elder brother, a Social Democrat, committed suicide in Siberian exile. Savinkov himself in 1899 was expelled from St. Petersburg University for participating in student riots. In 1903, the young revolutionary was only 24 years old, and behind him there were already arrests and exile. In Geneva, Savinkov joined the Combat Organization of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. Until 1917, he was organizing numerous terrorist attacks on Russian territory. The most noisy cases were the murder of the Minister of the Interior Plehve (1904), the Moscow Governor-General Prince Sergei Alexandrovich (1905), the assassination attempt on the Minister of the Interior Durnovo and General Dubasov. After the arrest of the leader of the terrorists, Azef, Savinkov leads the Combat Organization. In 1906, while preparing an attempt on the life of the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Chukhnin, a terrorist was caught in Sevastopol and sentenced to death. But Savinkov managed to escape to Romania at night. It was no longer possible to prepare successful terrorist attacks, the Combat Organization disintegrated, and its former leader began to engage in literary activities. After the February Revolution, Savinkov returned to Russia, he became a commissar of the Provisional Government, then an assistant to the Minister of War. The former terrorist did not support the October Revolution of 1917. He tried to fight the new government, then left for Europe, where he found himself in a political vacuum. As a result, Savinkov illegally returned to Russia, where he was captured by the OGPU and was killed in prison (officially, he committed suicide).
Ilyich Ramirez Sanchez, "Carlos Jackal". The international terrorist was born in 1949 in Venezuela. His name was given in honor of Lenin, because his father was also a staunch communist. In 1968-1969, the young fiery revolutionary studied at Moscow and the Peoples' Friendship University. In 1970, Sanchez was nicknamed "Carlos" when he was an intern at a terrorist camp in Palestine. During the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the terrorist showed himself well, and in 1973 he tried in London to kill the influential Jewish politician and businessman Edward Schiff. In the 70s, Sanchez succeeded in a whole series of terrorist attacks - an attack on a bank, bombing of French newspapers, attacks on planes and a restaurant. The most famous action of the "Jackal" was the attack on the Vienna headquarters of OPEC and the hostage-taking in 1975. At the same time, the terrorists managed to escape unpunished. In the 80s, Sanchez is credited with a series of explosions in France, 11 people were killed, and more than 100 were injured. The offender is constantly hiding, then in Hungary, then in Syria, then in Algeria. He began to trade in arms, moving away from his main activity over time. The terrorist was eventually extradited by the Sudanese authorities in 1994. In France, in 1997, Sanchez was sentenced to life imprisonment, and in 2011 a second such sentence was passed. Now the terrorist sits in a Paris prison and writes autobiographical books.
Ulrika Meinhof. This German journalist comes from an intelligent bourgeois family - her ancestors were pastors and her parents were art critics. In 1955, at the age of 21, a smart girl entered the University of Marburg, where she studied philosophy, pedagogy, and sociology. But the musty environment did not match her active character. In 1957, she transferred to the University of Munster, where she leads the student movement against nuclear weapons. In the first half of the 1960s, Meinhof became one of the most famous journalists in Germany, she received large fees. At the same time, she actively participates in the anti-fascist movement, opposes the war in Vietnam and the adoption of anti-democratic laws. When left-wing organizations are banned and persecuted in Germany, Ulrika's activities become much more radical. In 1970, the journalist organizes the armed release of the leader of the Red Army Faction (RAF) Andreas Baader. This mission succeeds, albeit at the cost of injuring innocent people. The newfound terrorist herself goes underground. Since then, the RAF has begun to take active steps. The group visited training camps of the Palestine Liberation Front. The terrorists needed money and on their return to Germany they began to attack banks. Ulrika Meinhof herself was called the queen of terror. The RAF was credited with 555 attacks. Among the victims were ordinary people and even associates who wished to retire. Ulrika Meinhof was finally arrested in 1972. In 1975, she died under strange circumstances in prison. Her funeral turned into a massive protest.
Timothy McVeigh. Before the advent of Osama bin Laden, he was the largest terrorist in American history. In his youth, Timothy grew up withdrawn and unsociable. He was more interested in computers, and later in firearms, rather than study and communication. In 1988, at the age of 20, McVeigh became a soldier in the US Army. He took part in the Gulf War and earned an award. McVeigh underwent special training, studied explosives, sniper tactics. But a career in the army did not work out due to McVeigh's poor physical condition. In 1992 he was retired. The former soldier adhered to right-wing anarchism, he believed that gun control was a limitation of constitutional freedoms. The actions of the authorities in Ruby Ridge in 1992 and during the siege of Mount Carmel in 1993, when innocent people were killed by the authorities, prompted McVeigh to seek revenge. On April 19, 1995, a terrorist bombed the Alfred Marr Federal Building in Oklahoma City. For these purposes, a car mined with 5 tons of explosives was used. Then 168 people died, including 19 children under 6 years old. Another 680 people were injured. The total damage from the explosion was $ 652 million. Within an hour and a half after the explosion, McVeigh was arrested for illegal possession of firearms. In 1997, a trial was held, which sentenced the terrorist to death. In 2001, McVeigh was given a lethal injection. In America itself, legislation was changed that tightened the protection of federal buildings.
Patrick Magee. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is waging a terrorist war against the British. The most famous revolutionary is Patrick Magee. In 1984 he carried out his most famous action. Then the carefully prepared assassination attempt on British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher practically succeeded. When the British Conservative Party was holding its congress in the town of Brighton, Magee managed to plant a bomb in the politician's hotel room. Thatcher narrowly escaped death, as at the time of the explosion she was in the toilet. But 5 innocent people died. Magee himself received the nickname "Brighton Bomber" for his attack. The terrorist found out in advance in which hotel the distinguished guest would be accommodated. He had booked a room next door under a false name six months in advance. And it was given by accidentally left signature in the guest book. The court sentenced the Irishman to 8 life sentences. In prison, Magee studied and even passed the exams, receiving a second education. After 15 years, he was released. Today Magee continues to actively participate in demonstrations against the authorities.
Shoko Asahara. This man managed to create a whole deadly sect, which, under the guise of a neo-religious organization, began to kill people. Chizuo Matsumoto grew up in a large family. Unable to enter university, he took up the practice of Chinese medicine. Back in 1981, he was arrested for fraudulent selling of energy-charged drugs. In 1987, Asahara made a pilgrimage to the Himalayas, where he claims to have been spiritually cleansed. Earlier, he founded an organization called Aum Shinrikyo. Since 1989, the sect has become famous in Japan. It attracted many young Japanese students from elite universities. Active cooperation with the Dalai Lama led to his recognition of this organization. Studying Buddhist texts and meditating were just bait. Aum Shinrikyo became more active. The rituals included drug use, shock therapy. In 1989, the first murder of a sect member who wanted to leave her took place. In 1990, Asahara tried to run for parliament, but failed. The sect began to secretly acquire weapons, including chemical ones. Sarin and VX gas have previously been used to assassinate or assassinate critics of Aum Shinrikyo. But on June 27, 1994, gas was launched against the civilian population. Members of the sect used sarin in the central park of Matsumoto City. Then 7 people died, another 200 were injured. The police were preparing to close the sect, but Asahara managed to carry out another high-profile terrorist attack. On March 20, 1995, a gas attack was carried out in the Tokyo subway. The victims were 12-27 people, in total several tens of thousands of people felt the effect of sarin. Shoko Asahara's trial was the longest in the country's history. As a result, he was sentenced to death, but the sentence has not yet been carried out.
Shamil Basayev. Basayev, after finishing his military service, ended up in Moscow. There he never managed to enter the university and was content with low-paying jobs. After the collapse of the State Emergency Committee, Basayev returned to Chechnya, felt the field for self-realization. He became a member of the armed formation created at the National Congress of the Chechen People. In the summer of 1991, Basayev creates the Vedeno armed group, and in October forms a group of saboteurs. They were supposed to defend the freedom of the Chechen Republic and the interests of the President. On November 9, 1991, in protest against the imposition of a state of emergency, Basayev hijacked a passenger plane from Mineralnye Vody to Turkey. There the invaders surrendered and were sent to Chechnya. Then Basayev noted his participation in the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. In the course of the First Chechen War, the terrorist gradually switched from active participation to sabotage. On June 14-20, 1995, militants under the leadership of Basayev in the city of Budennovsk, Stavropol Territory, seized a hospital. The hostages were 1,600 people, 147 of whom died. Before the Second Chechen War, Basayev was actively involved in politics. Nevertheless, he continued to organize terrorist attacks on Russian territory. This includes the hostage-taking on Dubrovka in 2002 (129 deaths), the explosion of a truck near the government house in Grozny (72 victims), a series of suicide bombings in 2003, explosions in the subway in 2004, the seizure of a school in Beslan in 2004 ( 330 dead hostages). In 2006, Basayev was killed by Russian special services while preparing a new terrorist attack.
Osama bin Laden. This man became the largest organizer of terrorist attacks in modern history. He also quite generously sponsored the entire Islamic radical movement. Osama was born in Saudi Arabia and received a good education. He became involved in the family's construction business, but the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan forced bin Laden to join the Afghan Jihad. Bin Laden's activities against Soviet troops (hiring volunteers, active hostilities) were under the control of American intelligence. In 1989, Osama returned to his homeland, continuing to sponsor radicals. But the Gulf War and Saudi Arabia's alliance with the United States angered Osama, which prompted his expulsion to Sudan. In 1996 and 1998, bin Laden issued proclamations instructing Muslims to fight the Americans. The result was the bombing of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania on August 7, 1998. Just marked the eighth anniversary of the entry of American troops into Saudi Arabia. As a result of the terrorist attacks, 290 people died, about 5 thousand were injured. Then Osama bin Laden was included in the list of the most wanted terrorists. After the events of September 11, 2001, the name of Osama became known to the whole world. It was he who was declared the main suspect in the commission of a series of major terrorist attacks in America. Bin Laden himself sometimes refused to participate in the attack, then confirmed his involvement in it. The United States sent troops into Afghanistan to destroy the Al Qaeda terrorist network. Bin Laden himself remained in hiding for a long time until he was killed by special forces in 2011.
Andres Behring Breivik. The recent terrorist attack shocked everyone, because it turned out that the attack could be carried out in quiet, prosperous countries. Norwegian Andres Breivik led an inconspicuous life, but his political activities were active. Since 1997, Breivik took part in the youth wing of the Progress Party. In the 2000s, the views of the Norwegian became more radical. He positioned himself as a nationalist and hated multicultural politics and Muslims. Breivik gradually came to the conclusion that he could not do anything with political methods, therefore, it was necessary to use weapons. Before committing his attack, Breivik posted a 12-minute video on the Internet and sent out a 1,518-page manifesto. There he called on Europeans to return to isolationist policies and Christian medieval values.Breivik was able to legally acquire weapons in his native Norway, and components for explosives from a fertilizer seller. On July 22, 2011, an explosion occurred in the government quarter of Oslo. 8 people were killed, another 92 were injured. The nearest buildings were damaged, a fire started. An hour and a half later, Breivik arrived at a ferry crossing near the island of Uteya. There was a summer camp for the ruling Labor Party. There were over 600 young people in it. Dressed in the uniform of a policeman, Breivik did not arouse suspicion, having gathered around him young Social Democrats, he began to shoot them aimingly. On the island, the terrorist killed 69 more people. After an hour and a half of slaughter, he surrendered to the authorities without resistance. The law provides for a maximum term of imprisonment of 21 years; the terrorist himself does not intend to challenge the upcoming court decision.